1. Teacher Educators’ Perceptions about the Effectiveness of Social Networking Sites and Online Teaching Tools
A large number of students and teachers in higher educational institutions as well as in teacher education institutions are using mobile devices for connecting. Social networking sites and online teaching tools are playing a significant role in teaching-learning process. The most common social networking sites are YouTube, Instagram, WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, Skype, LinkedIn etc.There are two major approaches of online teaching:synchronous teaching (like audio-video conferencing tools, live chat, shared whiteboard, online slide shows etc.) and asynchronous teaching (e-mail, file attachments etc.). The present study adopted survey methodology focusing on sample fromteacher educators working in teacher education institutions. The objective of thestudy was to investigate the teacher educators’ perception towards effectiveness of social networking sites and online teaching tools. The results indicated that WhatsApp and YouTube were the two most preferred social networking sites used by teacher educators. GoogleClassroom, WhatsApp and YouTube were the three most preferred online teaching tools used by teacher educators. It was concluded thatsocial networking sites and online teaching tools provide platform for organizing and structuring instructional content, prompt feedback. Further, it was found that the most important skills required for efficient use of social networking sites and online teaching tools are technical know- how and classroom management.Keywords: Social Networking sites, Online Teaching Tools, Teacher Educators,Perceptions and Teacher Education Institutions.
2.Adoption of Leadership practices by Leaders in High Performing Schools.
Leadership plays an important role in every field of life whether it is political, social, cultural managerial or educational field. The present paper deals with leadership practices adopted by the school principals of the high performing schools. The study is based on the meta-analysis and uses research papers and articles from the EBSCO and Google scholar databases. The key terms used for searching are school leadership, leadership practices and leadership styles. The results of the study are presented in form of various leadership practices adopted by school leaders which are categorized under five main headings such as vision and mission, practices related to leaders, teacher’s development, involvement and relationship.Keywords: leadership practices, school leaders, successful schools, leadership styles.
3. Exploration of Teaching Competency among Secondary School Teachers of Sonitpur District of Assam
It is rightly stated by the Kothari Commission the destiny of our country is being shaped inside the classrooms. So teachers are considered to be the backbone of any nation. Therefore, teachers should be competent enough to perform this responsibility with full justice. Competency over this task of teaching is the essence of a successful education system. The present study was designed to know the level of teaching competency among secondary school teachers of Sonitpur district. Further, it also studied teaching competency with regard to gender, type of institutions and Educational qualifications. The sample for the present study consisted of 50 secondary school teachers selected through simple random sampling technique from the different schools of Sonitpur district. General Teaching Competency Scale by Prof. B.K Passi and Prof. M.S.Lalitha was used in this study. The results revealed that the level of teaching competency of secondary school teachers is average. It also revealed that there is no gender-wise difference however there is a significant difference with regard to the type of educational institutions and professional qualifications.Key Words: Teaching Competency, Secondary School Teachers.
4. Education in India: A Historical Perspective
Indian education system is strongly influenced by the religious systems and few have their own indigenous approach which serve as a foundation for secondary and higher education. The current paper attempts to comprehend how these institutions have played a role in formalisation of education at secondary school system through an overview ancient, medieval, colonial and post independent periods. The present paper aims to bring out common thread as well as differences in approach towards secondary and higher education and how over a period, formalisation of education have subjected to changes in responses to merits and demerits, respectively. The institutional differences of these religious systems from ancient to post independent periods are discussed in terms of (a) Objective (b) Pedagogy and (iii) Outcomes of Education.Keywords: Educational Philosophy & Pedagogy
5. Case study as an Educational Research perspective for social justice
Research in itself is the part of life engaging us for collecting and processing of information. Unknowingly or knowingly people have participated in different pre-conditioned and after-conditioned researches in their daily lives. Like a person standing in a shop or mall and thinking about brands, trends of fashions, quality of products and finding out their results. In similar ways one can view other academic researches with regard to need and demand of specific research grounds; whether it is scientific, sociological, historical, cultural or any literary researches. Mostly, every research is done with the hope to explore their established uses and limitations, and also to examine some of the new possibilities that are opening up in the studies of education and society. So, as the case study researches important in its own ways of providing some sources of data about a person, case, individual; or a group, organization, or school. This paper is written with the view of understanding case-study researches from different dimensions as a social analyst what provides us a clear view of people’s life issues and realities as a critical approach of doing educational research.Keywords: Why and how case study, types, considering points, ethical issues and research perspective for social justice.
6. A Study on Problems Faced by Students of Rural College During Online Classes in The Time of Covid -19
Abstract Covid-19 has affected the education system all over the world. India is not untouched by it. During the period of Covid-19, there was a shift from the traditional mode of teaching to online or digital mode of teaching. This transition in the education system was all of a sudden and the major stakeholders associated with the education system were not fully equipped with the methods adopted for online teaching. One of the major stakeholders among them is the student group. This group faced problems during the online delivery of the teaching and learning process. In this article, the researcher has found problems faced by undergraduate students during their online classes in this pandemic period which is still going on. An online survey was conducted through a questionnaire designed in google forms. This study was a micro-level study and respondents were the students of Govt. College Sarkaghat, which is situated in a rural area.Keywords: Online Classes, Student Problems, Education, Covid-19
7. Unlocking Learners’ Potentiality Through Adaptive Learning and Testing Systems
In the era of globalisation, postmodernism, industrialisation, integrating adaptive learning in the curriculum holds the interest of academics, writers, and educators. Adaptive learning, particularly over the last decade, has been a focal issue for educational institutions. When Artificial Intelligence (AI) became mainstream in the 1970s, adaptive learning became popular. Its core principle was to tailor the learning experience to the abilities and shortcomings of the students. Adaptive learning, in a sense, personalises learning strategies after a differentiating phase to determine the student’s individual interests, while including a variety of options. The accessibility and scope of technology, as well as online instructional modelling, have increased the benefits of adaptive testing. Improvements in educational experience and student success, as well as real-time, personalised feedback, are among the benefits of this approach for validating learning. It allows for one-on-one mentoring, which boosts student engagement and lowers dropout rates. This article critically examines different issues like differentiated, personalised, and adaptive learning; Adaptive Testing, adopting the Learning Trend, Adaptive Learning Models, Adaptive Learning and Testing Systems, Adaptive Learning in Corporate Training and its benefits. The main objective of the essay is to motivate academics, writers, and educators in a new way of exploration in the traditional teaching-learning process, to impart critical thinking of the paradigm shift in the theoretical, ideological spheres in the light of postmodern, globalised popular culture perspectives.Keywords: Adaptive learning, personalised feedback, Adaptive Testing, Adaptive Learning Models, Adaptive Testing Systems.
8. Trade Union Attitude and Reaction towards the Vigorous Political and Economical Changes in India
Today it is very alarming that gradually trade union membership is decreasing in Bengal as well as in India also, mostly this happen due to the frequent movement of labour force, capital and production in era of globalization. However, unions have rejuvenated themselves by shielding their evolutionary character of conflict between labour and capital and also embracing numerous approaches to improve themselves. The strategic rejoinder embraces to form original membership, enhance collaboration, aiming on to continuous enhancing of the technical and non- technical abilities of the workers by proper training, safeguarding production along with shielding the attentiveness of consumer. In contradiction of the backdrop, this article attempts to assess the roles of the principle trade unions, operating predominantly in India and working towards the modifications on the structure of employment, especially in West Bengal and Largely in India as well.Keywords: Trade Union, Labour Force, Capital, Productivity, Globalisation
9. Revisiting Colonial Bengal through the Lens of Motherhood: A Vidyasagarian Perspective
So far as the Education Scenario of West Bengal is concerned, Pandit Iswar ChandraVidyasagar held a significant position and as a member of the then enlightened community ofthe Bengal Renaissance, his ideas and enthusiasm overwhelmed his countrymen in manyways. As an administrator, he had the responsibility to design the education sector of Bengalfrom its core and the periphery of Women Education got a significant focus during his time. Though theconceptual pattern had been borrowed from foreign ideology, it has its root in the soil ofIndian Education system also. This paper wishes to focus on the domain of Women Education and the empowerment of women as envisaged by Vidyasagar with a just appreciation of the historical scenario thathas ultimately designed his stance as a deliberate strategy to attune society with the conceptual pattern of the idea of Motherhood.Keywords: Education System, Motherhood, Ideology, Bengal Renaissance,West Bengal
10. Digital Literacy: Need To Incorporate And Promote Among Stakeholders Of Education
Today, virtual reality has become the new reality for the educational sectors due to the pandemic crisis. Technology has connected people in a new way at the global level. People have to learn and develop different digital skills and competencies to use new technologies to interact with othersi.e.‘connecting knowledge connecting people’. Digital skills that are required to navigate the digital word have been combined under the term ‘digital literacy’. The crises have realised the importance of digital literacy. The research article sheds light on what exactly is digital literacy and their importance in the current scenario. It also focuses on the existing limitations to incorporate and promote digital literacy among the individuals at the mass- level in the country. It also explored different digital competencies that are required to be more competent for the 21st century.Keywords: Digital literacy, Digital Competency
11. Need Analysis for developing a MOOC: Process and Benefits
Abstract Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) has remained a point of discussion for a long among policy planners and educators. In a country like India, providing TPD is a herculean task as nearly 1.5 million teachers exist in the higher education system. The study has revealed various common challenges teachers face while attending the formal PDPs and suggested that MOOC can be an effective alternative. In order to develop an effective MOOC for TPD, need analysis is an important aspect. Researchers have explained the process adopted by them for need analysis and concluded that there is enough acceptance and potential in MOOC for TPD if it is being developed with due consideration of all relevant facts and aspects, in which need analysis plays a crucial role.Key Words: TPD MOOC, Professional development, Need analysis.
12. Achievement of Primary School Scheduled Tribe (ST) Students With Reference to Their School Environment
The Present study is an attempt to examine school environment and academic achievement among primary school tribal students in three district of Odisha. The sample comprised of 300 primary school Scheduled Tribe(ST) students from 15 primary schools. The objectives of the study are to study the achievement of ST students in Orissa, to compare the achievement of ST students with good, average and poor school environment and to study the relationship between achievement of ST students with their school environment. Investigator has employed survey method and School Environment Inventory by K.S. Mishra and self prepared achievement test consisting of Language, Social studies/Environmental studies and Arithmetic were used as tools for collection of data. The collected data were analysed by using percentage, t-test and accordingly interpretation was made. The study found 26% of ST students are high achiever with mean performance of 30.607, 47% of students are belong to average with mean achievement score of 18.25 and 27% of students are low achiever with 7.740 as mean achievement. There is a significant difference in achievement of ST students having good and poor, good and average, poor and average school environment. The relationships between achievement score and school environment score of whole ST students is negligible (0.125).Key word: Achievement, Scheduled Tribe, School Environment
13.The Missing Factor of Teacher Preparedness in Low-Fee Private Schools: Exploration through Teachers’ Perceptions
Abstract Neo-liberalism has been dominating the policies of education after liberalization of Indian economy during 1990s. It promotes privatization in and of education. ‘In’ in the sense that the existing institutions and services are handed over or intervened by private players. ‘Of’ denotes the shrinking role of the state in financing education and opening up of new schools and colleges. This policy move is rationalised in the name of efficiency and cost-effectiveness as the state schools are considered to be dysfunctional. Therefore, the lower-income parents are inclined to access low-fee private schools - a shadow form of schooling that is rapidly growing in India. Srivastava (2013) elucidated mushrooming of private schooling targeting the socially and economically disadvantaged groups in developing countries, she points a dearth of scholarship on private schooling that helps us to understand the inclination of the disadvantaged groups in private schools. She coined the term ‘low-fee private school’ (LFPs) to describe the private schools that target the socially and economically disadvantaged groups.Keywords: Neo-liberalism, Teacher Preparedness, Teachers’ Perceptions.
14. Corollary Strategies on Reading Comprehension - A Case Study of ESL Undergraduate Students
Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to explore how learners experienced in a second language classroom which is exclusively designed to increase their emotive and cognitive reading performance. Research in the areas of vocabulary acquisition, reading strategy, comprehending the text, time spent reading, engagement, and reader self-perception provided a foundation for the study. Qualitative data was analyzed and described with description regarding what the learner’s action and words which shared their thoughts with one another as they actively participated in the classroom activity. Learners with special needs are in need of consistent, sequential reading instruction. Providing a framework for educators makes the reading process convenient and fascinating for both the teacher and the learner. In the recent scenarios, reading is certainly not left out. The National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association has collaborated to provide standards for reading. The pattern assumes that learning begins before the child enter any official schooling system as they start learning at home even before they admit themselves to school. So, the facilitators try to develop the skills that children bring to school. Most significantly in the transit of reading acquisition, is to cultivate a passion for reading. In our own lives, when we like to do something, we do it again and again. It is the same with reading. The more a learner reads the more proficient he becomes and the more likely he is going to engage in this activity.Keywords: Basic, Applied, Developmental Research, Classroom Implications.
15.An Investigationinto the Entry Level Teaching Aptitude of Trainee Teachers:Gender and Locational Perspective.
Teaching Aptitude forms the backbone of teaching profession. It is the latent potential which is mandatory for becoming a successful teacher. Trainees possessingteaching aptitude are like uncut diamonds waiting to be polished. The study desired to examinethe effect of Gender (male & female) and locality (rural & urban) on the Teaching Aptitude among the entry level teacher trainees of two different districts of West Bengal. This survey research used Simple random sampling to collect a sample of 133 trainee teachers from two B.Ed. colleges of West Bengal. Researchers constructed a close ended questionnaire based on past literatures and scored it on a four point scale. Results of the study showed significant differences in the teaching aptitude based ongender and locality.Key Words: Gender, Location, Trainee Teachers, Teaching Aptitude,Teacher Training College.
16. 16. Life Skills in Classroom: Strategies and Activities for the Teachers.
Adolescents of today will survive and flourish in the 21st century only if they are skillful and psychosocially competent. They are full of energy and potential but due to lack of proper guidance they are unable to channelize their energy in the proper direction. Nowadays students have abundance of theoretical knowledge but they are found to fail in practical life. Their bookish knowledge does not suffice them to face the adversities of life. Life Skills increases their psycho-social competency so they respond to real life problems in positive and responsible way. Holistic development of the children can be achieved only if they are exposed to various Life Skills. Students those who have sufficient life skills recognize their potential and grow well in the society. Life Skills Education would play a crucial role in growing years of children. So our education system must be blended with the Life Skills Education. School provides opportunities to foster and improve life skills. But school also faces some challenges in the implementation of Life Skills Education. Teacher can overcome these challenges if they are competent enough. Life Skills should be practical based and requires experiential learning hence its transaction needs trained teachers. Teacher should make effective strategies and activities and integrate these skills during class teaching without any extra burden on teacher and students both. With organized strategy and planning teacher can inculcate life skills among young aspirants to succeed in all spheres of life and represent themselves as intuitive citizens of a bright tomorrow. This paper aims to explore the Life skills education, core life skills, problems faced by teachers in Life Skills Education implementation and suggested strategies, activities and teachers’ efforts with which they can successfully implement life skills during class teaching especially at upper primary level.Key words: Life Skills Education, Life Skills, Psychosocial competency, Teaching, Strategies, Activities, Teacher, Classroom, CBSE
17. Attributes and Pedagogical Practices of Successful Teachers
The term ‘successful teacher’ does not reveal the underlying attributes of such a teacher. Factors like pedagogical satisfaction of students, the extent of learning outcome achievement and expected competencies, ability to develop higher order thinking skills may be some of the measuring aspects of a teacher’s success. However, the term ‘successful teacher’ is not yet explicitly defined. This study is an attempt to identify the attributes and pedagogical practices of successful teachers through interviews and classroom observations. 20 principals, 162 teachers, 270 students and 142 parents of students of middle schools were interviewed and classroom transactions of 30 identified successful teachers were observed. The thematic analyses of the responses revealed the attributes and significant pedagogical practices of successful teachers.Key words: Attributes, Middle School, Pedagogical Practices, Successful Teacher
18. The Effect of Critical Thinking on Academic Performance among School Students
Critical thinking is a thinking style involved in problem-solving activities, and it is also an essential constituent in the decision-making process. Whereas, a person's achievement or performance is measured by the level of expertise he has gained due to training. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Critical thinking on Academic performance among school students. The sample involved 200 School students age ranging from 12 to 15 years from Bihar and Kerala, 100 from each state. The study used a correlational research design. The study results indicated that two dimensions of Academic performance- Academic success and Academic productivity were found positively correlated with some dimensions of Critical thinking. The stepwise regression analysis showed that the Cost value dimension of Critical thinking emerged as a significant predictor of Academic productivity (β = .44, p<.01), and Academic success (β = -.17, p<.05). Overall, Critical thinking emerged as an important predictor of academic performance. The findings of this research may be used as a reference point for incorporating a critical thinking pedagogy into the course curriculum, which would aid students in developing their skills and dispositions, hence enhancing their academic performance.Key words: Critical Thinking, Impulse control, expectancy-value, Academic Performance.
19. Scope of Education for Sustainable Development [ESD] in India: A Systematic Review of CBSE Curricular Provisions
United Nations through UNESCO has in the past decade put sustainable development in the foreground of all its development initiatives, policy and plans. Continued efforts in SD have accentuated the need for building a future workforce that is prepared to take up environmental, social and economic challenges in more sustainable ways than their present trainers can envisage. All the 40 chapters of Agenda 21(UNESCO) describe school education as the most promising way of influencing human attitude, action and commitment toward a sustainable way of living. Volumes of UNESCO literature scientifically establishes how the global challenges that apparently look unlinked; are constituent parts of same crises. Their remedies therefore need to be in accord too. Economic slump, perpetually growing cultural intolerance, social disproportions, environmental degradation, gender and human rights insensitivity are pieces of a mammoth jig saw puzzle. Logically, academia world over upheld that a competency based learning is needed to address this pressing crisis. This is where Goal 4 of 17 SDGs (sustainable development goals) talks about ESD. UNESCO implores all the member states of UN to work on SDGs particularly ESD as this is the chief ‘preventive measure’ to the global crisis. This paper builds on these understandings and involved a systematic inquiry into CBSE documents and circulars pertaining to Class IX. Data from this extended text analysis was synthesised to present a comprehensive and coherent approach of CBSE towards implementation of ESD related aspects. These were then used as the basis for analysing the scope and presence of three essential elements of ESD: Locally Relevant, School-Wide Approach, and Competency Building and related implications in the national context. The study shows that through its policies CBSE seeks to empower the affiliated schools to develop ESD related competencies [knowledge, issues, perspectives, skills, and values] in students and integrate them into the curriculum. It also conducts training and capacity building programmes to address contemporary ESD challenges and to create sustainable school communities and future society. Considering the fact that it has immense futuristic relevance, it corresponds to CBSE’s aim of building future-ready citizens. Findings show that there is a need for a forum for public participation and networking among stakeholders regarding ESD which can provide exchange and consultations to develop relevant material for ESD. This will fulfilthe needs for capacity- building through requisite training, development of guiding literature and mutual sharing of experience and resources.Achieving this feat can showcase ESD initiatives of India, regionally and internationally.Keywords: Sustainable development, Global challenges, CBSE, Curricular Provisions
20. Technostress among School Teachers: A Survey
The information communication and technology(ICT) has played a significant role in all professions especially in educational institutions. Teachers play a pivotal role in integrating technology into the teaching-learning process. Due to increasing pressure exerted by the institutions related to the use of technology, the teachers experience technostress i.e. psychological state as a result of inability to cope with new technologies. The present study was taken up to study technostress faced by school teachers. A sample of 127 school teachers was selected from Amritsar city, Punjab, India. A scale developed by COKLAR, EFİLTİ and ŞAHİN (2017) having 28 items and five factors was used to collect data. .The five Factors were Learning-Teaching Process Oriented , Profession Oriented , Technical Issue Oriented, Personal Oriented and Social Oriented. The scale was sent through google form to the selected sample. Percentage analysis was used to analyse the data. The analysis revealed that technology use makes the teachers anxious and further revealed that it requires more effort and made them dependent on the internet. The teachers also agreed that the necessity to keep up with constantly developing technology worries them and the dependence on the individuals who are better at using technology makes them uncomfortable. The study has implications that providing technical supports and opportunities for professional development with hands on experience in mastering ICT will help teachers embrace technology to make the learning rich and effective.Keywords: ICT, School Teachers.
21. Effectiveness of Seminar and Webinar in Learning Experience: An Empirical Analysis
The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of online mode of instruction (webinar) vis-à-vis offline mode of instruction (seminar) and the possible policy implications therein. This Study has been conducted by using the primary data collected from 253 scholars ranging from students to professors through questionnaire. Various factors were taken into consideration for investigation based on review of literature. The results throw light on why scholars favour one mode of learning over the other. This study has repercussions on policy implications concerning effectiveness of distance education involving intergenerational age differences on learning outcome and experience.Key words: Online and Offline mode of learning, Seminar, Webinar, Intergenerational age differences, learning outcome.
22. Transformational Framework for Innovative Assessment in Higher Education
The competitiveness and sustainability focus has been continuously increasingin the education sector. The gap between the skill sets of students and the needs of industry has necessitated innovation in the teaching-learning process. The assessment constitutes a significant aspect of the teaching-learning process of higher education since it helps to identify the extent of learning of students and also facilitates further learning. Further, it facilitates refinement of the curriculum and establishment of learning goals. The methods of assessment in higher education have evolved over the last few decades. For example, continuous assessments are being used in addition to summative assessments in higher education. Though different assessment methods are being used, there is a constant need to introduce innovation in the assessment process for enhanced effectiveness.The innovative approaches that have been practiced in assessment have not been adequate. Students need to enhance their skills and become “industry-ready” as quickly as possible, and this aspect assumes greater significance in a dynamically changing world. This has necessitated a shift towards the assessment of real-life scenarios. An innovative assessment approach based on Authentic assessment techniques is needed to enhance understanding of the learning level and skill enhancement of students. Authentic assessment enables assessing the learners from a knowledge application perspective. This paper highlights the significance of innovation related to assessment. The methodology for introducing innovation in the assessment process encompasses vision creation for the assessment approach and establishment of assessment goals, standards, tasks, as well as measures. It suggests an innovative assessment framework known as Form-Fact assessment by considering factual assessment design principles and incorporating these in a formative assessment approach.The paper indicates the various stages from assessment-related idea generation until implementation, and also maps the proposed framework with higher education assessment goals.Key Words: Assessment goals, Assessment framework, Factual assessment design, Form-Fact assessment, Higher education, Innovation, Transformation
23. Gamification: An Aid to Facilitate Formative Assessment
To measure ‘learning’ of an individual, assessment is needed. Assessment can be truly meaningful only when it is formative in nature. The researcher here, attempts to delineate the need for assessment, and develops a framework to carry out a gamification strategy, applying the mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics of gaming in education to evoke ‘joyful’ learning. It can also be carried out in normal classroom setting in every school, without the need of constant internet and computer lab. Moreover, how gamification can act as a potential tool for formative assessment is also dealt with in detail.Keywords: Formative assessment, Gamification, Framework, tool.
24. Cancer Stigma among Non-Patient College Students
In spite of advances in early detection and treatment, a cancer diagnosis is often considered a death sentence, and negative images and myths regarding cancer are continued. Stigma has a negative influence on individuals’ health, creating social distance, which affects their interactions with people in the society. Cancer is connected with stigma, due to misunderstanding and myths about cancer. Cancer stigma may not just affect cancer patients but also non-patient population. College students should first be aware of cancer and cancer related false myth in society. The aim of this study was to assess the cancer stigma among non-patient college students.The cross sectional online survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Cancer stigma was measured using items from the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS), a validated scale with 25 items. 500 responses from India participated in this study. Non-probability snowball sampling technique was used in the present study. The findings of the present study indicates that the there is a significant difference in cancer stigma among non-patient college students with respect to locality, educational qualification and branch of study.Key Words: Cancer, Stigma, Non-Patient college students
25. Perception of Under Graduate Students towards On Line Assessment
A study was conducted to find out the perception of students about Online Assessment. The main objectives of this study were to study the perception of the under graduate students towards use of online assessment at University Level. To study the difficulties faced while using online assessment and to study the student’s satisfaction with the quality of feedback received in online assessment learning activities. A descriptive survey method was used to collect the data. 200 undergraduate Students were selected randomly belonging to different programs from the Universities of Delhi NCR. A self-designed online survey was prepared for collecting the data. The questionnaire contained 25 items related to the perception of the students towards online assessment, impact on learning and student’s satisfaction with the quality of feedback received in online assessment learning activities. Each item was rated on 4-point scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree. The results show that, in general, the students had a favourable perception towards online assessment and did not face much difficulty while using online assessment. They were satisfied with the quality of their engagement and the quality of feedback across all the formative e-assessment activities offered. The results also showed that the student weresatisfied with the quality of feedback received in online assessment learning activities.Key words: Online assessment, student perception, feedback, learner satisfaction
26. Ambedkar, Education and the Dalit Emancipatory Trajectory
The paper points out that though Dalits representation in education has increased over the years but they still lag behind the ‘general’ category in many ways. The paper dwells on Ambedkar’s initiatives for educational mobilisation of Dalits. The paper is based on secondary sources and interviews of Dalit scholars in education.The paper argues that in the context of Dalit exclusion and discrimination in educational institutions the paper emphasises that there is need to re-invoke Ambedkar’s approach for democratisation of education and social transformation in society.Key Words: Ambedkar, Education, The Dalit
27. Technology driven Assessment and Accreditation Framework for Institutions of India
In India, the assessment and accreditation of institutions offering general programmes is undertaken by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). Recently the agency has introduced the paradigm shift in the philosophy of external Quality assurance by automating the entire process driven by quantitative indicators. This model is seen as bringing enhanced objectivity in the process of Assessment and Accreditation. This attempt also forms the base for entire community of Quality assurance agencies world-wide specifically after outbreak of COVID-19. The paper is an attempt to highlight this revised model of NAAC and also to analyze the effects and emerging directions originating out of it.Keywords: External Quality Assurance (EQA), Assessment and Accreditation (A&A), NAAC, CGPA, Criteria, Weightage, Grade
28. Industry-Academia Collaboration in Global World: Indian Perspective
Globalisation and modernisation are posing challenges before education for developing global talent. The individuals who are capable of surviving in multicultural society and working in a fast-changing economic scenario can only be able to face the challenge. In this situation educational institutions need to cross its traditional responsibility and move toward working directly for the economic growth and development of the country. For fulfilling this objective Industry and Academia should work in collaboration. In other parts of the world different initiatives have already been taken in this context by India is still in a nascent stage. There is a lot which needs to be done for effective and productive collaboration of Industry and Academia. The best strategy is based on the financial, technical, material and human resources of the country. As both industry and academia are supposed to collaborate so both the partners should zero in on few common objectives and motives. After deciding on that, a beneficial strategy should be planned on the basis of different resources. A collaboration structure with few of the collaboration strategies has been suggested after analysing various successful practices already running in other countries. The strategies if used effectively would be beneficial not only for both the partners but also for the country at large.Key Words:Industry-Academia Collaboration, Best Practices, Strategies
29. Social Science and Democratic Citizenship: Reflections on Developing Democratic Skills among Students at Secondary School Level.
The present article tries to explore the practices, principles, processes which foster democratic engagement among students in the school. What are the various aspects in the school, which can facilitate the democratic functioning in the school? What is the school ethos and how does it function? How schools can be a ‘democratic’ place(s) for fostering active political participation, and democratic citizenship among students so as to prepare them for future roles in a democratic country, like India. The present paper tries to examine the functioning of democratic principles, and processes in an educational institution- the school, and understands how it aids in democratic citizenship. The paper describes varied aspects of social life to contextualise how democratic principles are inculcated among students. The analysis helps us to understand how democracy is a lived ideal, as it aids in developing the democratic process as an individual and collective action and prepares one to actively engage in the political process of the country.Keywords: Democratic ethos, social science, democratic citizenship, Indian Constitution.
30. Anand Bazar: The Fair of Joy and its Educational Implications
In 1901, Rabindranath Tagore established “Bhrambacharya Ashram” in Santiniketan. From the inception of its journey a unique educational system was experimented and practiced in this “Ashram”, where Tagore adopted a multidimensional curriculum along with a range of co-curricular activities. Various events were also planned and practiced apart from regular school activities and most importantly students, teachers, other staff, guardian and other members of the nearby community participate spontaneously in such events. “Anand-Bazar” is one of such important mega event that is practiced in Santiniketan annually on the day of Mahalaya or better to say, a day before the autumn vacation in Visva-Bharati. It is an integral part of the life of the students of Visva-Bharati. It inculcates various values and boosts up the overall development of the students, specially of the school section. In this study, an attempt has been made to find out and explain the educational implications of Ananda-Bazar, in the life of the students and in development of their social traits.Key Words: Ananda-Bazar.
31. Impact of Cooperative Learning (Jigsaw Methods) on Biology Achievement of Rural and Urban Students at the Secondary Level
The present research study was conducted to determine the impact of informal cooperative learning strategies (Jigsaw I and Jigsaw II methods) on the academic achievement of secondary students in Biology. To investigate the research question an experiment had been carried out by using randomized group Pre-test Post-test design. A total of 62 students of class IX have comprised the sample of the study. The BAT (Biology Achievement Test) and layout plans based on informal cooperative learning strategies were used as instruments for the present investigation. The BAT comprised of 100 items and its reliability coefficient calculated by the K20 method and Cronbach reliability formula, which were found 0.67 and 0.83 respectively. Two-way ANCOVA was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 levels of significance. The finding shows that the Informal cooperative learning instructional strategies significantly enhance students’ achievement in biology and the mean gain of rural students is slightly more than their urban counterparts.Keywords: Rural and urban; achievement; cooperative learning; Science; Biology; Jigsaw methods
32. New Education Policy 2020 and Teacher Education.
The present paper reviews the New Education Policy 2020 with a specific focus on the teacher education. The policy seeks to bring reform in the education system by bringing structural changes in the system with minimal financial input and other resource allocation. It is argued that the policy carries forward the neoliberal agenda of market and promotes privatisation of education at all the levels. Teacher education is one of the main areas to improve the quality of education in the country. Only qualified educated and trained teachers can help towards the building the Nation and contribute towards economic development. This paper also examines and discusses how the new education policy attempts to bring drastic changes in the teacher education and attempts to improve teaching profession using the incentives such as performance based promotions and tenure. The policy presents a minimalist vision of education and teachers.Keywords: Teacher Education, Teacher, Policy, Performance, Learning.
33. School Choice through Educational Voucher System: A Move towards Decentralization and Heterarchy
Education is the backbone of every individual in this world. Education is necessary not only for self-development but also for the success of the whole nation. Every nation has its unique education system and each country tries to sort out its educational problems in its own way. The Government of India has attempted to universalize education, yet the goal seems to be far away. It has been reasoned that children are out of school because lack of infrastructure and poor quality of education offered in them (Weidrich, 2003). However, the lack of facilities and infrastructure in schools is attributed to mismanagement and not shortage of funds. The problem is therefore with the inefficient and corrupt utilization of the budget.Time is ripe for the Indian education system to reorganize itself for better to enhance its quality. One potential step towards the enhancement of quality education could be the adoption of the voucher scheme. The educational voucher scheme is not only enhances the quality of education but also allows parents the volition of the choice of schools, be it government, private or non-government schools. It increases the competition among the schools to enhance their quality to be able to attract greater number of vouchers.Key words: Education voucher, quality education, universal education, educational choice, schools.
34. Problem Solving Ability of Undergraduate and Post Graduate Students of Tezpur University: A Case Study
The present study investigates the Problem Solving Ability of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students in Tezpur University.The objective of this study were- to compare the problem solving ability with respect to its gender, area of residence, course of study and discipline. Descriptive survey method was adopted in the study. The researcher used L.N Dubey Problem Solving Ability test tool. 120 students of Tezpur University were selected as a sample and random sampling technique was used.Statistical technique such as Mean, Median, Standard Deviation, t test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The findings revealed that no significant difference between male and female, rural and Urban undergraduate and postgraduate students in Problem solving ability. Moreover,significant difference was found between Engineering, Humanities, Management and Science students towards problem solving ability. Further, it was found that Science amd Engineering students are superior in problem solving ability.Keywords: Problem solving Ability, undergraduate & postgraduate students.
35. Study Habits and Learning Styles among Students Pursuing in Higher Education
This study accomplished to explore the study habits, and learning styles, among students pursuing in Higher Education. This study majorly focuses on various methods of study habits followed by the respondents during their higher education and various modes of learning styles would prefer during higher education. By nature, each student captures their study habits were by following their self or learned attitude. Depending on their acceptance of self or learned attitude, they follow certain habits in their learning style. Study habits state to the propensity of a student to use his/her uninterrupted care to obtain knowledge via orderly routines. Some of the commonly used learning styles are: auditory, visual, logical, verbal, social, physical, social, and ‘solitary’. At the outset, each student decides the study habits with a combination of two or more learning styles in it. The researcher has used a structured questionnaire in the form of a Google link to collect information from the target population. The collected information has tabulated and subjected to data analysis to draw meaningful outcomes for the study The results of the study reveals that the order of preference of respondents towards the mode of clarification, basic interest in education, and learning styles in higher education. At the outset, this study also further focuses on the relationship of Place preference, time preference, and method preference supporting their ‘study habits’ and ‘learning styles’. Finally, this study confirmed that there is a ‘positive significant’ association with study habits and learning styles among students pursuing education in higher educational institutions in the Vellore District.Keywords: Study habits, Learning styles, Students, and Higher education
36. Efficacy of Adapted Breathing Exercise on Self-Concept among Children with Intellectual Disability
This paper aimed to highlight the study “Efficacy of Adapted Breathing Exercise on Self-Concept among Children with Intellectual Disability.” Therefore 60 students (30 boys and 30 girls) aged 10-15 year old of educable mild category intellectual disabled children had been selected from special unit of mental retardation, J.M. Institute of Speech & Hearing, Patna, Bihar, India, as convenience were assigned randomly in two equal (on the basis of IQ scores) groups, one experimental group and another control group, i.e. 30 in experimental group and 30 in control group. The purposive technique of sampling had been used to select the sample for the study. This study had been employed “Pre-test Post-test Only Design” under experimental research. To measure the amount of effect of adapted breathing exercise on Self-Concept among children with mild intellectual disability in pre-test and post-test, that tool was used, the standard Self-Description (Self-Concept) Questionnaire-I (SDQ-I; By Marsh, 1988), Individual Administration. Both the groups had been pre-tested after that the Experimental group had performed adapted breathing exercise practices 30 minutes for 30 weeks regularly (5-days in a week), while Control group didn’t perform any activities like ABE. After completion of the treatment period once again both the groups were post-tested by same tool used for pre-testing. The collected data were analyzed by applying appropriate statistical techniques such as Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test was used to test Null Hypotheses. The data had been analyzed by computer programme such as SPSS & MS Excel statistics package (free student version). The findings of the study revealed that the 30 weeks intervention programme of adapted breathing exercise practices among children with mild intellectual disability have significant impact on their Self-Concept.Key Words- Adapted Breathing Exercise, Self-Concept, Intellectual Disability.
37. An Investigation Into Causes, Consequences And Combating Measures of School Dropout in Sikariya Village,Jehanabad District, Bihar
Education is the important device for development of cultural values and growth of a child in preparing them to be responsible, intelligent, strong and healthy citizen. Despite professed quality of opportunity to all citizens and various initiatives of stakeholder and government still school dropout is present in Indiansociety and particularly in case of Bihar. The present study revealed the theoretical review of literature on school dropout with various causes and factors namely personal, family, school and socioeconomic. This research work tried to find out various causes, consequences and combating measures to deal with the school dropout in Sikariya village of Bihar. For this purpose extensive primary data were collected fromthe study area which were substantiated with the secondary sources of data. The study reveals that dropout in Sikariya village is positively associated with its various social, economic and cultural factors. The tendency to not go to school is more among SC,ST and backwardcaste students. Students with SC,ST and backwardcaste leave school for social and economic reasons. Reasons for not going to school is also positively associated with sex of the children. Household work more often prevent girl students from going to school. Whereas, economic and physical reasons prevents male students from going to school.Keywords: School Dropout, SC,ST and backwardcaste, Children, Socio-cultural .
38. Teaching Strategies to Students with Visual Impairment in the Inclusive Classroom
The term visual impairment covers two types of disabilities namely blindness (totally blind) and low vision. A student who is totally blind is depends on his nonvisual senses, mainly hearing and touch, to access information. In the case of student with low vision, the student’s everyday performance on visually dependent task will also be compromised. A student with low vision has a limited ability to see print and other objects even with correctional lenses. Due to the continuous use of senses other than sight, the senses of these students tend to be more highly developed. Therefore, for students with visual impairment all printed materials and visual tasks need to be adapted, and encouragement of the use of their sense of hearing, touch, taste, and smell should be incorporated into their learning as much as possible to ensure their accommodation and success in the inclusive education. Inclusive education is defined as teaching students with special needs or disability in the same environment as students without special needs. Inclusion allows for the needs of students with and without disabilities to have equal access to school curricula and programs. The philosophy of inclusive education is a child-focused approach to education which requires that school adapt to the student rather than the student needing to adapt to the school. When students with disabilities are included in the inclusive classroom, both special education and general education teachers are indeed challenged to figure out ways that students with disability can learn skills and strategies in a whole class environment as opposed to a small group setting. This paper highlights the strategies to teach regular curriculum to students with visual impairment in the inclusive classroom.Keywords: Teaching Strategies, Students with Visual Impairment, Inclusive Classroom
39. Rethinking the role of Ahamkara in performance
Performance is one of the dynamic concepts that can be contextualized in various personal as well as professional settings such as school, college, workplace, sports, and many others. Researchers and practitioners have continuously worked towards means and methods to improve the performance of individuals at various stages. The studies on performance suggest that most of the researches has been conducted with reference to external factors which may determine performance whereas the internal factors have got less attention. Self, an internal factor, is at the centre of all human actions and experiences. In literature, self has been differently contextualized in the western and eastern researches. In the eastern approach, self is translated as ‘aham’ in Sanskrit. Aham is a generic term for ahamkara, which is the mechanism for ‘I-maker’. Western researchers claim that the higher the sense of self, the greater the performance whereas, eastern researchers claim that the lesser the ahamkara the greater the performance, life satisfaction, and quality of life. Contrary to these differences, there are traces of importance on the cultivation of optimal ahamkara in both the eastern as well as western researches.The studies indicate that too high or too low ahamkara can negatively affect the performance level due to impairment in perception, decision-making, and other cognitive abilities. However, the optimal level of ahamkara is essential for an effective and efficient performance level. Furthermore, the classical Indian texts provide insight on methods of lowering and controlling the development of ahamkara such as Buddhism, yoga, and others.Key Words: Ahamkara, Performance, Individuality, Agency, Separation, Identification.
40. An Exploration of Teachers’ Awareness and Understanding of the Importance of Using Psychometric Tests to Tanzanian Students during Counselling: A Case of Kinondoni Municipality
This paper explored the teachers’ awareness and understanding of the importance of using psychometrictest during counselling at Kinondoni Municipality in Tanzania. Psychometric tests as a tools to measure skills and talents of individuals without bias and link to the psychological phenomena, it was important to see if the secondary schools teachersof Kinondoni Municipality were aware of psychometric testsand also understand the importance of using psychometrics tests during counselling. The study employed qualitative approach where a single case study design was used. The study involved 20 secondary school teachers in Kinondoni Municipality who were purposively selected from five secondary schools which obtained through simple random sampling. Data were collected through interview and analysed thematically by using content analysis. The study revealed that secondary school teachers from Kinondoni Municipality were not aware of the psychometric tests and also they were not understand the importance of using psychometric tests during counselling as the psychometric tests seemed to be new thing or new terminology to everyone. The study recommended that teachers should be oriented or training about the use of psychometric test and how they are important during counselling process.Keywords: Awareness, Understanding, Importance, Psychometric tests, Counselling
41. An Exploratory Study of School Curriculum: Analysing Gaps between Theory and Practice
This exploratory research problematises the dissonance between child-centred traditions in curriculum theory with knowledge-centred school curriculum practice. It examines prevailing curricular practices in primary grades at a private school that switched to online education during the pandemic. Data is gathered by classroom observation using the technique of virtual ethnography. Three select data vignettes are presented in this paper. The research draws from the interpretative framework offered by existentialist concepts of having, knowing and being for sense-making of the data. The concept of ‘having’ knowledge implies taking and keeping possession of available knowledge (information). ‘Knowing’ is functional and part of the process of productive thinking. ‘Being’ refers to human experience which in principle is not even describable. Independence, freedom and presence of critical reason are prerequisites of the mode of being. The research found school curriculum practice mainly framed in the ‘having’ mode. Curricular knowledge was practiced almost like an object to be possessed since prescribed texts were viewed as authoritative sources of knowledge waiting for acquisition by young primary school children. Learning consisted of an accumulation of correct answers to be reproduced in a testing situation to demonstrate children’s ownership of a pre-defined body of knowledge. Such a curriculum practice ignores children’s lived experiences and personal knowledge which does not foster the processes of knowing, as also brought to the fore a realization that our prescribed curriculum does not provide adequate space for children’s need to know. A being curriculum that means to enjoy the delight of the knowledge and living it; is simply non-existent in school curriculum practice.Keywords: School Curriculum, Classroom Observation, Curriculum Practice, Virtual Ethnography
42. Online and ICT Based Education at Higher Education Level: Issues and Challenges
Education is a very purposeful tool for all round development of any individual and society. No nation can afford to underestimate the contribution and priority of education. Quality of education broadly depend on the availibity of teaching-learning resources, training, and orientation of teachers during pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes. But the formal system of education alone cannot satisfythe needs and requirements of teachers and students at different levels. Therefore, there is an urgent need of revamping teacher education programmesin order to improve quality, standard of teaching-learning process,and prestige of teaching profession.In this context, online and digital education can play very significant role in improving the quality of education by providing access to latest knowledge, skills, values, innovative pedagogies and can also supplement the face to face mode of teaching.It proved to be the only lifeline of teaching-learning process during Covid-19 pandemic situation not only in our country but throughout the world at large. National Education Policy (2020) also recognizes the importance of integration of technology,and online/digital education can be one alternative mode of quality education for all. But there are some very crucial issues and challenges which directly or indirectly hamper the process of online/digital and ICT based education like lack of digital resources at institute level and availibity of thereof at learners’ level including the problem related to affordability/availibity of smart phone and also the expenses of recharge thereof, lack of knowledge and orientation among teachers and students,speed and internet connectivity in rural arrears, negative attitude& lack of interest of senior teachers towards online education, limitation and ineffectivenessfor practical work/field based activities, feeling of monotony, besides health issues, of learners due to prolonged online teaching etc. Thus, the authors intended to make research attempt to identify the multifaceted issues and challenges regarding online and ICT based education and also to suggest some remedial measures for effective implementation of online and ICT based education at higher education level in India.Keywords: Online/Digital Education, ICT, National Education Policy-2020
43. Status of Mental Health of Elementary School Teachers in Aizawl City
A teacher’s role is very significant in society. Along with grooming the future of a student, s/he tries to shape the future of the country. Alike others, teachers also face many challenges related to the professional as well as personal, family, or social life. To deal with these challenges, strong mental health is required. Besides, it is necessary to be mentally healthy to balance intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships and to help in maintaining the mental health of the surrounding people. These all demand a teacher to be mentally healthy because mentally tender children are the responsibility of him/her. Keeping in the mind the essentiality of mental health for the teachers this study aims to find out the level of mental health among elementary school teachers. The population of this study consists of all 354 elementary schools in Aizawl city. A stratified random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of the sample. The findings of the study indicate that a majority of the elementary school teachers of Aizawl city were mentally healthy but at the same time, a large number of teachers had a low level of mental health. Female teachers and teachers who were teaching in the government schools were found to be less mentally healthy than their counterparts.Key words: Elementary School Teachers, Mental Health
44. From Theory to Praxis: Effective Inclusion of Marginalized Genders in Co-educational Institutions
With the references of the research works done by other researchers on gender issues, this paper offers some evidences based on a research work conducted by the authors themselves. Through open-ended questionnaire and descriptive survey method the researchers have dealt with the conception of the students about co-education and also the notion of the students about other genders with special reference to transgender people. In a nut shell this paper aims at addressing the lacuna in effective inclusion of marginalized genders. In many institutions female students are cornered in terms of gender discrimination, male supremacy, patriarchal notion about women, academic matter etc. The condition of the transgender students is more serious. Even after achieving legal rights transgender students remain in the periphery of our society. The number of transgender students is also very limited in educational institutions. Even if they secure admission, they are often humiliated and marginalized. Moreover the definition of ‘co-education’ also hardly mentions the term ‘transgender’. The authors are concerned whether the terms like ‘inclusivity’, ‘gender harmony’, ‘gender equality’ etc. will remain stored in the ivory tower of intelligentsia or these progressive ideas will be actualized in the real society. However, the findings of the study are impressive in some contexts as well as the study also unlocks some rooms of concern.Key Words: Inclusivity, Gender harmony, Gender equality, Gender discrimination, Transgender.
45. Classroom Reading Strategies Programme Based on Different School Subjects for Pre-Service Teachers
Language has a pivotal role to play in the daily life of a person from any race, creed, and region of the world. Language is useful for expressing our feelings and desires to the world around us. Human beings communicate through written and spoken language. Besides this language is a term associated to a great extent with human learning. Thus, language is important not merely to lead a life in the society but it has a very important role to play in ‘education’. Language is essential for developing human knowledge across the various branches and disciplines. We must create a learning environment in the schools which promotes importance of language learning irrespective of the subject we are learning. Researchers have highlighted the importance of ‘reading’ in improving the comprehension and the learning of the students. It also has an important role to play in promoting self-learning. It is useful in retrieving information, interpreting information, and reflecting and evaluating the information. It is important then that the pre-service teachers be made aware of the different reading strategies and their use in the learning of the subject. The present paper focuses on the feedback regarding a reading strategies programme for pre-service teachers in the context of its benefits for enhancing themselves as readers and writers as well as using the strategies for teaching their school subjects.rs themselves. Through open-ended questionnaire and descriptive survey method the researchers have dealt with the conception of the students about co-education and also the notion of the students about other genders with special reference to transgender people. In a nut shell this paper aims at addressing the lacuna in effective inclusion of marginalized genders. In many institutions female students are cornered in terms of gender discrimination, male supremacy, patriarchal notion about women, academic matter etc. The condition of the transgender students is more serious. Even after achieving legal rights transgender students remain in the periphery of our society. The number of transgender students is also very limited in educational institutions. Even if they secure admission, they are often humiliated and marginalized. Moreover the definition of ‘co-education’ also hardly mentions the term ‘transgender’. The authors are concerned whether the terms like ‘inclusivity’, ‘gender harmony’, ‘gender equality’ etc. will remain stored in the ivory tower of intelligentsia or these progressive ideas will be actualized in the real society. However, the findings of the study are impressive in some contexts as well as the study also unlocks some rooms of concern.Key Words: Reading Strategies, Pre-service Teachers.